Buildings in Ancient Rome
Buildings in Ancient Rome
After the conquest of Carthage and the conquest of Greece Rome stanovitsya the most powerful and formidable government of the Ancient world. At the same time there is increasing demand for the construction of temples and palaces. Best of all this type of buildings was responsible the building of vaulted type. There is evidence that for many centuries before the Romans, vaults, domes and arches were applied to more ancient peoples, however, only in Ancient Rome, they have improved to such an extent that they remained unsurpassed until the mid-nineteenth century Romans were familiar with such types of arches, cylindrical, cross, torispherical and spherical (semicircular) dome. The greatest preference they gave last.
In construction the Roman vaults were divided into framed and frameless, i.e. in the first case the arch was kept at the expense of stone or, more commonly, the brick skeleton, and the second due to the strength of monolithic concrete. However, despite the fact that since the construction of the first concrete arches and domes more than 2000 years, scientists can’t clearly answer the question, what is the design of the Roman arch and how it was built. And this mystery Is another Roman secret.
The question is really complex and interesting. The fact that most surveyed the Roman vaults and domes are clearly visible brick arches, which form on their surface is varied, and sometimes bizarre figure. Most often the meridional arches at the bottom of the dome of the building or strictly up to the light box, but sometimes they suddenly drop before reaching the bottom or turn and rounded down.
There are arches, who generally have no brick frame, and the arch, more precisely, its concrete part, as it is supported by additional thin membrane formed of one or two rows of thin bricks laid flatwise. All these features of Roman concrete vaults and the main dome or semi-circular gave rise to a variety of hypotheses that explain their internal structure. As a result, the design of concrete steel arches be divided into framed and frameless, although the presence of the brick arches in the second case, also not rejected. In order to get closer to the truth, you should listen to the opinions of both sides.
Frame opponents of the hypothesis claim that the brick arches are not structurally sound and decorative element. As proof, they cite data that the embedding of the edges of the brick arches in the concrete was very small no more than 13-15 cm with a total thickness of the arch-dome from 40 cm and above. For example, the thickness of the dome of the Pantheon in top, the thinnest part is 1.4 m and the support ring 6 m. ward Perkins, Director of the Institute of ancient Rome, writes about the following: VL. a more detailed examination of the arches in stone and brick the arch does not carry any load. They were erected simultaneously with the laying of concrete and is used only in order to achieve a predetermined curvature of the arch and to divide the weight of liquid concrete into smaller sectors, easy to work with. In”.