The map is known and drawings in the slave societies of antiquity the peoples of the Ancient East who lived in the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, and in Egypt. In these countries was widespread irrigation agriculture, which required the construction of an extensive system of irrigation and drainage facilities: canals, dams, reservoirs, created the density of the population and gave rise to a high value suitable for farming land. In these conditions (in the construction of irrigation facilities, setting boundaries of land plots, calculating land tax) there was a need in the area description. As evidenced by the documents found, such descriptions sometimes took the form of map images. The construction of large cities with fortresses, temples and palaces demanded making their plans. In addition to drawings of small sites we have, some primitive, well-known at the time in the world. Trade links and exchanges with foreign countries and numerous conquests contributed to the expansion of the geographical horizon and encouraged consolidation of acquired knowledge.
Relatively many finds discovered during the excavations in Babylonia and other countries of Mesopotamia, where the material Continue reading
Stained glass Windows in the Gothic style (Gothic style)
The historical and ideological basis of the Gothic style
The Gothic style emerged and developed in the second half of the 12th century in Western Europe. It took place in those countries dominated by the Catholic Church. Initially, the style belongs to the field of architecture, which in this period began rapidly to change their shape, which was due to the development of the culture of cities. The townspeople, who won in a historic clash with the lords, gradually form a new world, in which man is seen as the Creator, the Creator of all wealth. The person becomes inclined to a kind of patriotism, pride in their city and desire to file a claim.
If in the previous period, cathedrals were largely a defensive structure, but now they get the value of the symbol of the city. As a result the rich people want to Finance the construction of cathedrals and the artists and architects give them the most solemn and rich look.
Ideologically, the style is based on the spiritual striving upwards to God. This idea was the reason for the height increase of the temple buildings and the appearance of elongated forms of the cathedrals. All significant architectural elements have an orientation of up, characterized by moving vertically, as they would stretch Continue reading
The Anthony caves of the Troitsko-illinsky monastery in Chernihiv – is a monument of religious architecture X I – XIX centuries. They were founded in 1069 as a Christian cave monastery by Prince Svyatoslav Yaroslavich and the famous Church figure of the era of Kievan Rus, a native of the city of Liubech – Anthony of the caves. Initially the monastery was called Theotokos (Mother of God monastery). The chronicler claims that Anthony came to Chernihiv, fleeing from the wrath of the Prince of Kiev Izyaslav. He “loved” the Boldin hills and dug themselves a cave. The Foundation of the monastery was closely connected with a sharp rivalry between the two biggest cultural and political centers of the state – Kyiv and Chernihiv.
In Kiev at the same time, there was already the monastery of the caves, which have become very popular. Chernigov Prince Svyatoslav, in an effort to counter his capital the “mother of Russian cities”, with Anthony decided to create on the Boldin hills monastery similar to cave.
Intensive development of the monastery continued until the year 1239, when Chernihiv was destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars. Proof of this can be built in early X century II near the entrance to the cave stone Elias Church. Then came a period of decline, which continued until the X V I century. At this time, according to experts, the reconstruction of the monastery. Continue reading